Medical Mondays: Left-Sided heart failure.

Left-sided heart failure is one of the major conditions in critical care Nursing and midwifery. In this Medical Mondays Episode. we discuss the definition, pathophysiology, mechanism and sign and symptom-based on various organs affected by decreased perfusion from left ventricular failure.


Breidthardt, T. M. D. et al. 2012. Pathophysiology of Lower Extremity Edema in Acute Heart Failure Revisited. The American journal of medicine 125(11), pp. 1124.e1121-1124.e1128. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.12.015

Vincent, J.-L. 2008. Understanding cardiac output. Critical care (London, England) 12(4), pp. 174-174. doi: 10.1186/cc6975

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